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(1) power resides where information resides (McCulloch, see the PRINCIPLE OF REdundancy of potential command; (2) power is the ability to limit choice. (Von Foerster in the mid 1960's), A does not have power over B unless A is able to constrain a necessary transaction of B; (3) a power relationship requires compliance (Maturana); (4) power is the consequence, submission is the cause (von Foerster, 1983). (5) Indirect or secondary exercise of power occurs when A constrains the necessary transactions of C so C will constrain the necessary transactions of B. A secondary boycott is an example. (6) Power distorts information. Hence, the President, who needs to be well informed, is often poorly informed because his power distorts the information given to him. No adviser wants to be the bearer of bad news or news which the President is thought not to want to hear. Deliberate steps are required to achieve accurate information. (7) If one accepts the idea that one is powerless, then one feels justified in threatening those one defines as powerful. However, the "powerful" usually feel threatened by the "powerless" who invariably outnumber them. Threats by the powerless against the powerful can make the powerful feel that repression is necessary in order to preserve the safety of themselves and their families.

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